Dr. Walter Heinrich Munk

Dr. Walter Heinrich Munk

männlich 1917 - 2019  (101 Jahre)

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  • Name Dr. Walter Heinrich Munk 
    Titel Dr. 
    Geboren 19 Okt 1917  Wien, Wien, Österreich Suche alle Personen mit Ereignissen an diesem Ort 
    Geschlecht männlich 
    Education 1932  New York City, New York, United States (USA) Suche alle Personen mit Ereignissen an diesem Ort 
    Preparatory School 
    Emigration 3 Okt 1932  New York City, New York, United States (USA) Suche alle Personen mit Ereignissen an diesem Ort 
    Ankunft mit der SS Pennland von Antwerpen 
    Education zwischen 1934 und 1936  New York City, New York, United States (USA) Suche alle Personen mit Ereignissen an diesem Ort 
    Studium an der Columbia University 
    Occupation/Beruf um 1935  New York City, New York, United States (USA) Suche alle Personen mit Ereignissen an diesem Ort 
    Bankkaufmann 
    Education zwischen 1936 und 1939  Pasadena, California, United States (USA) Suche alle Personen mit Ereignissen an diesem Ort 
    Physikstudium, California Institute for Technology 
    Residence 1936  500 Riverside Drive, New York City, New York, United States (USA) Suche alle Personen mit Ereignissen an diesem Ort 
    Residence 1939  1273 East Orange Grove, Pasadena, California, United States (USA) Suche alle Personen mit Ereignissen an diesem Ort 
    Education 1947 
    Promotion über Ozeanographie 
    Occupation/Beruf Ozeanograph 
    Occupation/Beruf von 1954  Pasadena, California, United States (USA) Suche alle Personen mit Ereignissen an diesem Ort 
    Professor für Geophysik 
    Residence um 2010  9530 La Jolla Shores, La Jolla, California, United States (USA) Suche alle Personen mit Ereignissen an diesem Ort 
    Lebenslauf Walter Heinrich Munk wurde am 19. Oktober 1917 in Wien als Sohn von Hans Munk und Regine Pauline Brunner geboren.
    Nach seiner Jugend in Österreich wurde Munk 1932 von seiner Familie zum Schulbesuch nach New York geschickt. Er sollte eine Finanzkarriere in einer Bank mit geschäftlichen Verbindungen zu seiner Familie ergreifen. Seine Eltern, Hans Munk und Rega Brunner, wurden schon in seiner Kindheit geschieden. Sein Großvater mütterlicherseits, Lucian Brunner (1850–1914), war ein Wiener Bankier. Sein Stiefvater Rudolf Engelsberg (1889–1954) war vor 1938 Generaldirektor der österreichischen Salinen und Sektionsrat im Finanzministerium.
    Munk arbeitete drei Jahre lang in der Bank und studierte an der Columbia University. Er hasste die Banktätigkeit und verließ die Firma, um das California Institute of Technology zu besuchen, wo er 1939 den B.S. erreichte. Er bewarb sich bei Scripps. Der neue Direktor von Scripps, der bekannte norwegische Ozeanograph Harald Ulrik Sverdrup, nahm ihn als Doktoranden an, wies ihn aber darauf hin, dass ihm für die nächsten zehn Jahre keine freie Stelle als Ozeanograph bekannt sei.
    Am 20. Juni 1953 heiratete Munk Judith Horton. Sie war jahrzehntelang aktive Mitarbeiterin von Scripps, wo sie wesentliche Beiträge zur Architektur, der Planung des Campus und der Renovierung und Wiederverwendung von Gebäuden leistete. Judith Munk litt an Poliomyelitis und starb am 19. Juni 2006. Knapp fünf Jahre später, im Juni 2011, heiratete er Mary Coakley.
    Munk erwarb 1939 nach dem Anschluss Österreichs ans Deutsche Reich die amerikanische Staatsbürgerschaft. Er meldete sich bei den Gebirgstruppen der U.S. Army. Dies war ungewöhnlich; die anderen jungen Männer von Scripps gingen als Reservisten zur Navy. Munk wurde schließlich vom Militärdienst befreit, um verteidigungsorientierte Arbeiten bei Scripps zu übernehmen. Er schloss sich einigen seiner Kollegen von Scripps zum U.S. Navy Radio and Sound Laboratory an, wo sie Methoden für die amphibische Kriegsführung entwickelten. Ihre Methoden wurden erfolgreich bei der Brandungsvorhersage für die alliierten Anlandungen in Nordafrika, im Pazifik und beim D-Day in der Normandie genutzt.

    Forschungen
    Munk schloss seinen M.S (Diplom) 1940 ab und promovierte (Ph.D.) 1947 über Ozeanographie an der University of California, Los Angeles. Nach dem Abschluss stellte ihn Scripps als Assistant Professor für Geophysik ein. Er wurde 1954 ordentlicher Professor.
    Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg half Munk, Strömung, Vermischung und Wasseraustausch beim Bikini-Atoll im Südpazifik zu analysieren, wo die USA Atomwaffen testeten. Er trieb die Forschung über die Beziehung zwischen Wind und ozeanischer Zirkulation voran, wofür er den jetzt gebräuchlichen Begriff “wind driven gyres” prägte.
    In den 1950er Jahren befasste sich Munk mit den Schwankungen der Erdrotation. Er beobachtete Unregelmäßigkeiten durch geophysikalische Prozesse, wie den Impulsaustausch zwischen ozeanischen Strömungen und der festen Erde sowie den zwischen den polaren Eiskappen und den Ozeanen. Munk war Mitinitiator des Mohole-Projektes (1957–1966), eines Tiefbohrung-Projektes in die Erdkruste.
    1963 leitete Munk eine Studie, die zeigte, dass sich Wellen von den Winterstürmen der südlichen Hemisphäre über Tausende von Meilen fortpflanzen und über alle Ozeane ausbreiten. Um den Weg und die Abnahme der Wellenpakete bei der Wanderung nordwärts zu verfolgen, richtete er Messstationen auf einem Großkreis von Neuseeland bis Alaska ein und maß die Druckschwankungen auf dem Meeresboden. Diese Arbeiten führten auch zur Entwicklung des Garrett-Munk-Spektrums, einer Formulierung einer kanonischen Form des Wellenzahlsspektrums der internen Wellen zur Beschreibung der internen Dynamik des Meeres im freien Ozean.
    1968 wurde er Mitglied der JASON-Gruppe, einem Ausschuss von Wissenschaftlern, der die US-Regierung berät.
    Seit 1975 trieben Munk und Carl Wunsch vom Massachusetts Institute of Technology die Entwicklung der akustischen Meerestomographie (Ocean Acoustic Tomography) voran. Diese Arbeiten führten schließlich zum ATOC-Experiment (Acoustic Thermography of the Ocean Climate) im Pazifik mit dem großräumig integrierend die Temperaturänderungen durch die globale Erwärmung bestimmt werden sollten. Nach dem ursprünglichen Konzept sollten dabei von einer Schallquelle bei Heard Island im Indischen Ozean akustische Signale ausgesandt werden, die im Atlantik bis zu den Bahamas und im Pazifik bis zur kalifornischen Küste empfangen werden sollten. Wegen Bedenken hinsichtlich der Gefährdung von Meeressäugern wurde das Experiment auf den Nord-Pazifik verkleinert.

    Schriften:
    - W. H. Munk, Gordon J. F. MacDonald: The Rotation of Earth. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1960.
    - W. H. Munk, P. Worcester, C. Wunsch: Ocean Acoustic Tomography. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1963, ISBN 0-521-47095-1.
    - W. Munk: The circulation of the oceans. In: Scientific American. 193, September 1955, S. 96–104.

    Literatur:
    Carl Wunsch: Walter Munk (1917–2019). In: Nature. Band 567, Nr. 7747, 28. Februar 2019, ISSN 0028-0836, S. 176–176, doi:10.1038/d41586-019-00750-5 (nature.com [abgerufen am 15. März 2019]

    Quelle:
    https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Munk (7.12.2019) 
    Biography Walter Munk was born on October 19, 1917, in Vienna as the son of Hans Munk and Regina Brunner. Munk was sent to a boys' preparatory school in upper New York state in 1932. The family selected New York because they envisioned a career in finance for Munk in a New York bank with connections to the family business. His father, Dr. Hans Munk, and his mother, Rega Brunner, divorced when Munk was a child. His maternal grandfather was a prominent banker and Austrian politician, Lucian Brunner (1850–1914). His stepfather, Dr. Rudolf Engelsberg, was briefly a member of the Austrian government of President Engelbert Dollfuss.
    Munk worked at the firm for three years and studied at Columbia University. He hated banking, and left the firm to attend the California Institute of Technology, where he earned a B.S. (1939) in physics. He applied for a summer job at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California. The next year the director of Scripps, the distinguished Norwegian oceanographer Harald Ulrik Sverdrup, accepted him as a doctoral student, but told Munk that he did "not know of a single job in oceanography which would become available in the next decade".
    Munk completed an M.S. in geophysics at the California Institute of Technology in 1940 and a PhD in oceanography from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1947. After graduation, Scripps hired him as an assistant professor of geophysics. He became a full professor there in 1954.
    In 1968 Munk became a member of JASON, a panel of scientists who advise the U.S. government.
    On June 20, 1953, Munk married Judith Horton. She was an active participant at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography for decades, where she made major contributions to architecture, campus planning, and the renovation and reuse of historical buildings. Judith Munk died on May 19, 2006. Munk married La Jolla community leader Mary Coakley in June 2011.
    War activities
    Munk applied for American citizenship in 1939 after the Anschluss and enlisted in the ski troops of the U.S. Army as a private. This was unusual as all the other young men at Scripps joined the U.S. Naval Reserve. Munk was eventually excused from military service to undertake defense-related research at Scripps. He joined several of his colleagues from Scripps at the U.S. Navy Radio and Sound Laboratory, where they developed methods related to amphibious warfare. Their methods were used successfully to predict surf conditions for Allied landings in North Africa, the Pacific theater of war, and on D-Day during the Normandy invasion. Munk commented in 2009, "The Normandy landing is famous because weather conditions were very poor and you may not realize it was postponed by General Eisenhower for 24 hours because of the prevailing wave conditions. And then he did decide, in spite of the fact that conditions were not favorable, it would be better to go in than lose the surprise element, which would have been lost if they waited for the next tidal cycle two weeks."

    Returning to Scripps from a sabbatical at Cambridge University in England, in 1956 Munk developed plans for a La Jolla branch of the Institute of Geophysics, then a part of the University of California, Los Angeles. With the new branch of IGP, an institution of the wider University of California system, to be focused on planetary physics with an emphasis on the Earth-Moon system, IGP changed its name to the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, IGPP. IGPP at La Jolla was built between 1959–1963 with funding from the University of California, the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the National Science Foundation, and private foundations. The redwood building was designed by architect Lloyd Ruocco, in close consultation with Judith and Walter Munk. The IGPP buildings have become the center of the Scripps campus. Among the early faculty appointments were Carl Eckart, George Backus, Freeman Gilbert and John Miles. The eminent geophysicist Sir Edward "Teddy" Bullard was a regular visitor to IGPP. In 1971 an endowment of $600,000 was established by Cecil Green to support visiting scholars, now known as Green Scholars. Munk served as director of IGPP/LJ from 1963–1982.
    In the late 1980s, plans for an expansion of IGPP were developed by Judith and Walter Munk, and Sharyn and John Orcutt, in consultation with a local architect, Fred Liebhardt. The Revelle Laboratory was completed in 1993. At this time the original IGPP building was renamed the Walter and Judith Munk Laboratory for Geophysics. In 1994 the Scripps branch of IGPP was renamed the Cecil H. and Ida M. Green Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics.

    Research:

    After World War II Munk helped to analyze the currents, diffusion, and water exchanges at Bikini Atoll in the South Pacific, where the United States was testing nuclear weapons.

    Wind driven gyres
    Munk pioneered research on the relationship between winds and ocean circulation, coining the now widely used term "wind-driven gyres."

    Rotation of the earth
    Munk was the first to show rigorously why one side of the moon always faces the earth (Munk and McDonald, 1960; and later papers up to 1975), a phenomenon known as tidal locking. Lord Kelvin had also considered this question, and had fashioned a non-quantitative answer being roughly correct. The moon does not have a molten liquid core, so cannot rotate through the egg-shaped distortion caused by the Earth's gravitational pull. Rotation through this shape requires internal shearing, and only fluids are capable of such rotation with small frictional losses. Thus, the pointy end of the "egg" is gravitationally locked to always point directly towards the earth, with some small librations, or wobbles. Large objects may strike the moon from time to time, causing it to rotate about some axis, but it will quickly stop rotating. All frictional effects from such events will also cause the moon to regress further away from the earth.

    In the 1950s, Munk investigated irregularities in the Earth's rotation, such as the Chandler wobble and annual and long-term changes in the length of day (rate of the Earth's rotation), to see how these were related to geophysical processes such as the changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and core, and the energy dissipated by tidal acceleration. He also investigated how western boundary currents, such as the Gulf Stream, dissipated planetary vorticity. His inviscid theory of these currents did not have a time invariant solution; no simple solution to this problem has ever been found.

    Project Mohole
    In 1957, Munk and Harry Hess suggested the idea behind Project Mohole: to drill into the Mohorovicic Discontinuity and obtain a sample of the Earth's mantle. While such a project was not feasible on land, drilling in the open ocean would be more feasible, because the mantle is much closer to the sea floor. Initially led by the informal group of scientists known as the American Miscellaneous Society (AMSOC, including Hess, Maurice Ewing, and Roger Revelle), the project was eventually taken over by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Initial test drillings into the sea floor led by Willard Bascom occurred off Guadalupe Island, Mexico in March and April 1961. The project became mismanaged and increasingly expensive after Brown and Root won the contract to continue the effort, however, and Congress discontinued the project toward the end of 1966. While Project Mohole was not successful, the idea led to projects such as NSF's Deep Sea Drilling Program.

    Ocean swell
    Starting in the late 1950s Munk returned to the study of ocean waves, and, thanks to his acquaintance with John Tukey, he pioneered the use of power spectra in describing wave behavior. This work culminated with an experiment that he led in 1963 to observe waves generated by winter storms in the Southern Hemisphere and traveling thousands of miles throughout the Pacific ocean. To trace the path and decay of waves as they propagated northward, he established stations to measure waves from islands and at sea (on R/P FLIP) along a great circle from New Zealand to Alaska. The results showed little decay of wave energy with distance traveled. This work, together with the wartime work on wave forecasting, led to the science of surf forecasting, one of Munk's best-known accomplishments. Munk's pioneering research into surf forecasting was acknowledged in 2007 with an award from the Groundswell Society, a surfing advocacy organization.

    Ocean tides
    Between 1965 and 1975 Munk turned to investigations of ocean tides, being partially motivated by their effects on the Earth's rotation. Modern methods of time-series and spectral analysis were brought to bear on tidal analysis, leading to the development of the "response method" of tidal analysis. With Frank Snodgrass, Munk developed deep-ocean pressure sensors that could be used to provide tidal data far from any land. One highlight of this work was the discovery of the semidiurnal amphidrome midway between California and Hawaii.

    Ocean acoustic tomography
    Beginning in 1975, Munk and Carl Wunsch of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology pioneered the development of acoustic tomography of the ocean. With Peter Worcester, Munk developed the use of sound propagation, particularly sound arrival patterns and travel times, to infer important information about the ocean's large-scale temperature and current. This work, together with the work of other groups, eventually motivated the 1991 "Heard Island Feasibility Test", to determine if man-made acoustic signals could be transmitted over antipodal distances to measure the ocean's climate. The experiment came to be called "the sound heard around the world." During six days in January 1991, acoustic signals were transmitted by sound sources lowered from the M/V Cory Chouest near Heard Island in the southern Indian Ocean. These signals traveled half-way around the globe to be received on the east and west coasts of the United States, as well as at many other stations around the world. The follow-up to this experiment was the 1996–2006 Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) project in the North Pacific Ocean, which engendered considerable public controversy concerning the effects of man-made sounds on marine mammals.

    Tomography has come to be a valuable method of ocean observation, exploiting the characteristics of long-range acoustic propagation to obtain synoptic measurements of average ocean temperature or current. Applications have included the measurement of deep-water formation in the Greenland Sea in 1989, measurement of ocean tides, and the estimation of ocean mesoscale dynamics by combining tomography, satellite altimetry, and in situ data with ocean dynamical models. In addition to the decade-long measurements obtained in the North Pacific, acoustic thermometry has been employed to measure temperature changes of the upper layers of the Arctic ocean basins, which continues to be an area of active interest. Acoustic thermometry was also recently been used to determine changes to global-scale ocean temperatures using data from acoustic pulses sent from one end of the earth to the other.

    Tides and mixing
    In recent years Munk has returned to the work on the role of tides in producing mixing in the ocean. In a 1966 paper "Abyssal Recipes", Munk was one of the first to quantitatively assess the rate of mixing in the abyssal ocean in maintaining oceanic stratification. According to Sandström's theorem (1908), without the occurrence of mixing in the abyssal ocean, such as may be driven by internal tides, most of the ocean would become cold and stagnant, capped by a thin, warm surface layer.

    Munk has also recently focused on the relation between changes in ocean temperature, sea level, and the transfer of mass between continental ice and the ocean.

    Awards:
    Munk was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1956 and to the Royal Society of London in 1976. He has been both a Guggenheim Fellow (three times) and a Fulbright Fellow. He was also named California Scientist of the Year by the California Museum of Science and Industry in 1969. Among the many other awards and honors Munk has received are the Arthur L. Day Medal, from the Geological Society of America in 1965, the Sverdrup Gold Medal of the American Meteorological Society in 1966, the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1968, the first Maurice Ewing Medal sponsored by the American Geophysical Union and the U.S. Navy in 1976, the Alexander Agassiz Medal of the National Academy of Sciences in 1977, the Captain Robert Dexter Conrad Award from the U.S. Navy in 1978, the National Medal of Science in 1983, the William Bowie Medal of the American Geophysical Union in 1989, the Vetlesen Prize in 1993, the Kyoto Prize in 1999, the first Prince Albert I Medal in 2001, and the Crafoord Prize of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 2010 “for his pioneering and fundamental contributions to our understanding of ocean circulation, tides and waves, and their role in the Earth's dynamics”.
    Munk gave the 1986 Bakerian Lecture at the Royal Society on the Acoustic monitoring of ocean gyres.
    In 1993 Munk was the first recipient of the Walter Munk Award given "in Recognition of Distinguished Research in Oceanography Related to Sound and the Sea." This award is given jointly by the Oceanography Society, the Office of Naval Research and the US Department of Defense Naval Oceanographic Office.

    Works:
    - W. Munk and G.J.F. MacDonald, The Rotation of the Earth: A Geophysical Discussion, Cambridge University Press, 1960, revised 1975;
    - W. Munk, P. Worcester, and C. Wunsch, Ocean Acoustic Tomography, Cambridge University Press, 1995;
    _ S. Flatté (ed.), R. Dashen, W. H. Munk, K. M. Watson, F. Zachariasen, Sound Transmission through a Fluctuating Ocean, Cambridge University Press, 1979;
    - H. von Storch and K. Hasselmann, Seventy Years of Exploration in Oceanography: A Prolonged Weekend Discussion with Walter Munk, Springer, 2010

    Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Munk (9.6.2016) 
    Gestorben 8 Feb 2019  La Jolla, California, United States (USA) Suche alle Personen mit Ereignissen an diesem Ort 
    Notizen 
    • Quellen:
      Stamm-Baum der Familie Heinrich Brunner, Familienbesitz USA (Kopien JMH);
      Original-Datenbank Brunner, JMH;
      Ancestry.com. Einbürgerungsregister der USA, 1840-1957 [database on-line] (7.12.2019);
    Personen-Kennung I4824 
    Zuletzt bearbeitet am 4 Jan 2020 

    Vater Hans Munk,   geb. 12 Mai 1886, Wien, Wien, Österreich Suche alle Personen mit Ereignissen an diesem Ort,   gest. 12 Okt 1965, Los Angeles, California, United States (USA) Suche alle Personen mit Ereignissen an diesem Ort  (Alter 79 Jahre) 
    Mutter Regine (Rega) Pauline Brunner,   geb. 25 Feb 1892, Wien, Wien, Österreich Suche alle Personen mit Ereignissen an diesem Ort,   gest. 28 Nov 1965, Los Angeles, California, United States (USA) Suche alle Personen mit Ereignissen an diesem Ort  (Alter 73 Jahre) 
    Verheiratet 23 Nov 1913  Wien, Wien, Österreich Suche alle Personen mit Ereignissen an diesem Ort 
    Geschieden 27 Jan 1926  Wien, Wien, Österreich Suche alle Personen mit Ereignissen an diesem Ort 
    Familien-Kennung F5323  Familienblatt

    Familie 1 Lebend 
    Zuletzt bearbeitet am 7 Dez 2019 
    Familien-Kennung F5328  Familienblatt

    Familie 2 Judith Horton,   geb. 10 Apr 1925, San Gabriel, Los Angeles, California, United States (USA) Suche alle Personen mit Ereignissen an diesem Ort,   gest. 19 Mai 2006, La Jolla, California, United States (USA) Suche alle Personen mit Ereignissen an diesem Ort  (Alter 81 Jahre) 
    Kinder 
     1. Lucian Munk,   geb. 1954, San Diego, California, United States (USA) Suche alle Personen mit Ereignissen an diesem Ort,   gest. 1960  (Alter 6 Jahre)
     2. Lebend
     3. Lebend
    Familien-Kennung F5330  Familienblatt

    Familie 3 Lebend 
    Zuletzt bearbeitet am 7 Dez 2019 
    Familien-Kennung F6440  Familienblatt

  • Ereignis-Karte
    Link zu Google MapsGeboren - 19 Okt 1917 - Wien, Wien, Österreich Link zu Google Earth
    Link zu Google MapsEducation - Preparatory School - 1932 - New York City, New York, United States (USA) Link zu Google Earth
    Link zu Google MapsEmigration - Ankunft mit der SS Pennland von Antwerpen - 3 Okt 1932 - New York City, New York, United States (USA) Link zu Google Earth
    Link zu Google MapsEducation - Studium an der Columbia University - zwischen 1934 und 1936 - New York City, New York, United States (USA) Link zu Google Earth
    Link zu Google MapsOccupation/Beruf - Bankkaufmann - um 1935 - New York City, New York, United States (USA) Link zu Google Earth
    Link zu Google MapsEducation - Physikstudium, California Institute for Technology - zwischen 1936 und 1939 - Pasadena, California, United States (USA) Link zu Google Earth
    Link zu Google MapsResidence - 1936 - 500 Riverside Drive, New York City, New York, United States (USA) Link zu Google Earth
    Link zu Google MapsResidence - 1939 - 1273 East Orange Grove, Pasadena, California, United States (USA) Link zu Google Earth
    Link zu Google MapsOccupation/Beruf - Professor für Geophysik - von 1954 - Pasadena, California, United States (USA) Link zu Google Earth
    Link zu Google MapsResidence - um 2010 - 9530 La Jolla Shores, La Jolla, California, United States (USA) Link zu Google Earth
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  • Fotos
    Walter Munk, 1936
    Walter Munk, 1936
    Walter Munk, 1936



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